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 Humanities: Renaissance to Mid-20th Century
Philosophy Essays
by Suzi
History of Western Philosophy Trips/Vacations Scrapbook-
Ayn Rand &
Humanities: Renaissance to Mid-20th Century Bob - memorial Norris Red Hat Dame  
Personal Identity
Darwin, Evolution,
& Galapagos Islands
Sophie & Kramer


Photos -Birds Birds of Panama Index: PERU Birds Birds of Belize Birds of Galapagos
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History of Western Philosophy  
Plato & Aristotle (closeup from School of Athens by Raphael)

Triumph of Thomas Acquinas (with Aristotle and Plato, over Averroes) by Benozzo Gozzoli, 1471

Creation of the sun and moon, one of nine ceiling panels of Sistine Chapel, by Michelangelo

Dream of St. Helene by Paolo Cagliari, c. 1580

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor by Sir Peter Paul Rubens

Martin Luther nails the 95 Theses to the door of Wittenberg Cathedral- Oct. 1517. Painting, 1872, by Ferdinand Pauwels

The Doubting of St.Thomas- late 1590s by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.
(Tenebrism, extreme chiaroscura)

Louis XIV (age 63)
by Hyacinth Rigaud, 1701

Blinding of Samson by Rembrandt van Rijn, 1636
Nicholas Copernicus, Polish humanist and astronomer, set out to prove Ptolemy’s system - that planets revolved around Sun

Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789. French Revolution. Artist Jacques-Louis David

The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David, 1787

Madame de Pompadour as Venus by Francois Boucher, 1756 (Rococo)

Blue Boy by Thomas Gainsborough, 1770

Executions of The Madrilenos Defenders of Madrid, on the Third of May, 1808
by Francisco Goya

Honoré Daumier: 1830, ghosts of original French Revolution, aghast that the current state of France is what they died for . . .

The Stone Breakers
by Gustave Courbet, 1849

The Persistence of Memory
by Salvador Dali 1931

The Ladies of Avignon, 1907. by Pablo Picasso

German & Spanish bombing attack of Guernica, Spain 1937
by Pablo Picasso

German & U.S. Propaganda

Willen de Kooning's Woman I (1950-52). It was one of a series of six oil-on-canvas paintings centered upon a single female.

Poet on a Mountaintop
Shen Zhou, ca. 1500 (China)

The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Hokusai Katsushika (1760-1849)
Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji

Mt. Fuji, symbol of enduring beauty and stability; it is dwarfed by a giant, threatening wave: it is contrasted with the fragility of life.  (JAPAN)

Japanese Kabuki Theater

Samurai sword, most favored weapon
JAPAN (artist unknown)

  Humanities Lectures: This lecture series, developed by Susan Fleck, is an integrated approach, looking at the History, Philosophy, Literature, Music, and visual Arts - Painting, Sculpture & Architecture: From the Renaissance era thru mid- 20th century. The focus is on Western Civilization: There are two lectures at end about the East- a sweeping overview of China and Japan. This was created for a course on World Humanities that Susan taught at a community college in Florida. (See notes below about viewing the Power Point presentations.)
School of Athens by Raphael
* NOTEs - for viewing Power Point presentations:
*** For Power Point slides: DO NOT use the "Next" arrow to advance to next slide. Some slides have 'animation': Click within the main body of the presentation window to advance lines of text/animation (otherwise, slide may look blank, or partially filled, with just a heading. (The "Next" arrow just advances to next slide, without advancing text or other data within a slide.)

*** Click on "NOTES" tab - right hand side of presentation (versus "outline" tab): There are detailed notes on some of the slides explaining the slide images, along with additional narrative.

*** Many Links to other website pages within the slides are no longer be valid - these presentations were prepared around 2010

*** The WORD documents are notes that go along with the Power Point slides' presentation.

POWER POINT Presentations WORD documents
 1. Humanities Course Introduction: ART "appreciation:" How to 'Look" at Art. What is History? What is Philosophy? These questions are explored.  1. Humanities Course Intro
 2. Ancient Greek Philosophy: Pre-Socratics, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. We begin here, because it was Western contact with the Arab Scholars who preserved and commented on these ancient texts: this precipitated coming out of the Dark Ages.  2. Ancient Greek Philosophy
 3. Medieval Era Survey: Philodophy of Church Theologists and culture leading up to the Renaissance. Double Truth Theory. A comparison of Medieval to Renaissance Art.  3. Medieval Era Survey
 4. Early Italian Renaissance: 15th Century: History, Philosophy, Architecture: Religiosity coexists with Secular; Capitalism; Exploration of Americas; Science & Technology; Printing Press; Development of Nation States; Emphasis on Humanism & Rational Thought  4. Early Italian Renaissance
 5. Italian Renaissance Painting: Masaccio, Piero della Frencesca, Fra Angelico, Leoardo da Venci, Raphael, Michelangelo  5. Italian Renaissance Painting
 6. Renaissance Sculpture: Ghiberti, Donatello, Michelangelo, Properzia de' Rossi  6. Renaissance Sculpture
 7. Renaissance Music & Literature: Music forms and terms. Composers: Guillaume Dufay, Heinrich Isaac, Jasquin des Prez. Literature: Francesco Petrarch, Baldassare Castiglione, Niccolo Machiavelli.  7. Renaissance Music & Literature
 8. Venetian Renaissance & Mannerism in Europe: 16th Century: Architecture: Jacobo Sansovino, Andrea Palladio - "Four Books of Architecture." Venetian oil painting: Titian, Cagliari. Mannerism: Painters and Sculptors, living in the shadow of early Renaissance giants, dramatically depart in the manner of style, e.g., the style of Raphael. Several artists are reviewed, e.g. Celline & El Greco.  8. Venetian Renaissance & Mannerism in Europe
 9. North Europe Early Renaissance: 15th Century: Germany, France, England, the Lowlands: History & culture leading up to 15th Century; Printing Press invented; Turbulent times - Holy Roman Empire; Characteristics distinguishing Art from Italian Renaissance. Artists: Robert Campin, Jan Van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Hieronymus Bosch.  9. North Europe Early Renaissance
10. North Europe High Renaissance:  16th Century: History & Architecture: Holy Roman Empire- Emperor Chaarles V; France- King Francis I; Spain- King Philip II. Painting: Hans Holbien the Younger, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Quentin Massys, Albrecht Durer 10. North Europe High Renaissance
11. Protest and Reform in Northern Europe: 16th Century: Background for Protestant Reformation; Catholic Church abuses; new merchant class; early dissenters; Christian Humanism; role of printing press; Disiderious Erasmus, Monk- "In Praise of Folly;" William Tyndale; Martin Luther "95 Theses;" peasants' revolts; John Calvin; other protestant off-shoots; Hussite wars. 11. Protest and Reform in Northern Europe
12. England: Reform & Renaissance- 16th Century:  Reform: Hundred Years War with France; War of Roses; Tudor England; Henry VIII & Reformation Parliament; Anglican Church - King is supreme leader; Dissent & uprisings; Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth I, Catholics, Puritans, Common Book of Prayer; English Civil War (England & Ireland). Renaissance: Age of Shakespeare - Elizabethan Era; Literature, Philosophy & Music dominate the Arts; Literature: Geoffrey Chaucer, Edmuch Spenser, William Shakespeare; John Milton, Sir Thomas More, Sir Francis Bacon, & many more; Music: Madrigals & Sonnets; Architecture: not much new. 12. England: Reform & Renaissance
13. Catholic Counter-Reformation: 16th Century: This is a series of actions lasting about 100 years to counteract the Protestant Reformation; Catholic Reformation Goals; Coucil of Trent; Reaffirmation of doctrines, Control by extreme censorship & Inquisitions; New Religious Orders; Political / Religious Wars: France, Spain, Germany; Remake Rome as Cultural Center: specific decrees about ART- 'arouse piety and ferver,' 'clarity' in music & literature, counter Mannerism. 13. Catholic Counter-Reformation
14. Art of the Catholic Counter-Reformation: 16th & 17th Century: Michelangelo - Sistine Chapel, Mannerist Painting; Baroque Era - Church in Rome; Italian Baroque painting: Caravaggio, Artimisia Gentileschi, Annibale Carracci, Fra Andrea Pozzo; Architecture & Sculpture: Bernini's Piazza San Pietro, Bernini's David, St. Teresa in Ecstasy; Baroque Music. 14. Art of the Catholic Counter-Reformation
15. Aristocratic Baroque Art: 17th Century: Peter Paul Rubens: accepted the two towering institutions: Absolute Monarchy & Roman Catholic Church; 21 paintings about Marie de' Medici's life; Rubenistes - favored Ruben's style). Nicolas Poussin (Poussinistes - favored classical lines). Louis XIV - The Sun King- Control over everything, including Art & Architecture: Royal Academy - absolute standards; Versailles Palace - enormous structures. 15. Aristocratic Baroque Art
16. Aristocratic Baroque: Palace of Versailles: Lots of pictures and diagram of this enormous complex of structures, fountains, sculptures, gardens.  
17. Baroque Music & Literature: 17th Century: Baroque music outside of Italy: Handel and the Oratorio, Johann Sebastian Bach. Literature: Moliere and the Baroque Stage, John Donne, John Milton, Miguel de Cervantes. 17. Baroque Music & Literature
18. Northern Baroque Art: The Netherlands: 17th Century: Holland - Protestant, Flanders - Catholic. Holland: Impact of Protestant Reformation: Distinct form of Baroque Painting; large demand for paintings; Huge number of painters - had to specialize/ 5 categories (e.g. portraits, landscape, still life). Painters: Frans Hals, Judith Leyster, Jan Vermeer, Rembrandt van Rijn, Rachel Ruysch. 18. Northern Baroque Art: The Netherlands
19. Scientific Revolution & 17th Century Philosophy: BIG IDEAS: The discovery of new knowledge and the questioning of tradition. Science: Science needed tools and "freedom." Why was the Church in denial? Heliocentric (sun-centered) theory (3rd c. BC) vs Geocentric (earth-centered) theory accepted by The Church;  Ptolomy 140 CE - planets revolved around Sun. Nicholas Copernicus set out to prove Ptolomy's system; Tycho Brahe, Astronomer; Galileo, mathematician/ scientist - improves telescope; Johannes Kepler, Astronomer; Isaac Newton, Mathematician, Astronomer, "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy;" Invention of microscope; World Exploration. Philosophy: Empiricism vs Rationalism; Francis Bacon (Empiricism); Rene Descartes (Rationalism, Father of Modern Philosophy); Thomas Hobbes (politics/government); John Locke (anti-authoritarian - influenced U.S. founding fathers). 19. Scientific Revolution & 17th Century Philosophy
20. Enlightenment & Revolutions: 18th Century: Enlightenment, American Revolution, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution, continuation of Scientific Revolution. Emphasis on mind's power to reason, in contrast to beliefs based on religious faith. Optimism - Humans can make progress. Political thinkers: Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, Paine ("Common Sense"), Jefferson, Franklin. Intellectuals: world wide exchange of letters. American and French Revolutions discussed; Napoleon; Legacy from Revolutions; How the Industrial Revolution changed the world; Adam Smith - the Free Market system; New Sciences defined - geology, mineralogy, zoology, biology; Diderot's Encyclopedia; Linnaeus's Biology Classification system; belief that Humans could eventually know and catalogue everything!! 20. Enlightenment & Revolutions
21. 18th Century Neoclassicism Arts & Literature: Pouissin's intellectual classicism should help restore orderliness and be corrective influence on social ills. By mid-century, grandiose history subjects were desired. Diderot and others hated Rococo fantasies. Public-minded values of Greek and Roman heroes. Jacques-Louis David - unchallenged Painter of French Revolution; Painters Angelica Kauffmann, John Copley; Sculpture - Jean-Antoine Houdon; Neoclassic Architecture, including U.S. Literature: Johnathan Swift, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Mary Wollstonecraft- women's rights, a hot topic; Rise of The Novel - Jane Austen, Daniel Defoe. Rise of the public consert: Symphony, Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Mozart, Beethoven. 21. 18th Century Neoclassicism Arts & Literature
22. Rococo in France, Sensibility in England: 18th Century: France: rocaille, stones & shells used to decorate; ornate, fussy details, not dark & grandiose like Baroque; Rococo interiors- hotels, salons; Age of Louis XV- Paris Salon exhibits, Salon at Palace of Louvre, 8 Rococo painters. England: Rococo is too frivolous; Painters - refined, elegant style;  English satire- William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds,  Thomas Gainsborough. Portraits and Landscapes. 22. Rococo in France, Sensibility in England
23. Romanticism: History, Philosophy, Literature, Music: 19th Century: Philosophers: Jean-Jacques Rousseau - exploration of the self; George Friedrich Hegel - comprehensive philosophical system, how Absolute Spirit manifests itself, Universal Mind; Immanuel Kant - cannot know 'the thing in itself,' Transcendental Idealism, Categorical Imperative (DUTY), Ralph Waldo Emerson - American Transcendentalism (rooted in Kant), union of humaity with nature; Henry David Thoreau - author, poet, abolitionist, civil disobedience. History: Abolitionism in U.S.- Participants; Civil War - why the Union won, an Industrial War, Consequenses. Literature: Subjects; Melville, Blake, Stevenson, Goethe, Bronte, Doyle - The Mystery Tale, Wordsworth, Whitman. Music: The most "romantic" art form? Expansion of techniches to enhance emotion; Technology advances; Operas, Lied, Chopin solos, Program Music; Examples:  Berlioz, Brahms, Chopin, Verdi, Wagner, Tchaikovsky. 23. Romanticism: History, Philosophy, Literature, Music
24. Romanticism: Wars, Painting & Architecture: 19th Century: Napoleonic Wars, throughout Europe - unprecedented scale - extreme death, sickness, destruction ; takeover, then defeat; Consequences. Romanticism: Attitude over Style - Enlightenment 'reason' too cold and emotionless; subjective experience; glorification of the self and originality; Romanticism main subject matter. Artists: Jacques-Louis David, Eugene Delacroix, Francisco Goya, Theodore Gericault, Joseph Turner, Jean Leon Gerome, John Constable, Thomas Moran, Casper Friedrich. Architecture: Revival of earlier styles and modern engineering. 24. Romanticism: Wars, Painting & Architecture
25. Realism: Industrial Revolution: History & Philosophy: 18th &19th Centuries: The Industrial Revolution changed how the world produced goods; changed societies from agricultural to industry; rapid growth of textile industry in England; rapid growth of cities; invention of steam engine; development of transportation & communication; Captains of Industry; Adam Smith: Classical Economic Theory; legislation to protect workers, children; Charles Dickens - wanted reform (Ebenezer Scrooge); Socialism - attempts at utopian communities; Karl Marx &  Friedrich Engels: "Communist Manifesto;" George W. F. Hegel, philosopher, origin of Marx's ideas: dialectic logic; Main concepts in Communist Manifesto; Social Darwinism. 25. Realism: Industrial Revolution: History & Philosophy
26. Realism: Painting, Photography & Literature: 19th Century: Accurate, objective portrayal of reality, including the sordid & seamy. Honoré Daumier -Painter & Lithographs used in newspapers attacking the gov’t, ridiculing lawyers, and social & intellectual pretentiousness. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of 1st Emperor: coup de'etat- Dictator Napoleon III; Transformation of Paris - poor are displaced. Other Painters: Gustave Courbet, Edouard Manet, Alexandre Cabanel, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer: Wood engravings, Painter. Photography: Matthew Brady - Documents U.S. Civil War. Literature: Honore de Balzac - panorama of French life after fall on Napoleon (1815); Gustave Flaubert; Emile Zola; George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans); Charles Dickens; Fyodor Dostoyevsky. 26. Realism: Painting, Photography & Literature
27. Early 20th Century: History, Philosophy, Arts- Avant Garde: Many ISMs. History: American- Manifest Destiny. WWI, Treaty of Versailles. A New Russia: Lenin & Stalin. Science & Technology: inventions-Communications, Transportation, Housekeeping; Einstein-Theory of Relativity; Structure of Atom; Helmholz- conservation of energy. Nietzsche- antiauthoritarian. Sigmund Freud- father of psychoanalysis. Avant Garde: pushing bounds of what considered norm: Impressionism (and post-), Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, German Expressionism, Dadaism, Surrealism, DeStijl-ism, Abstractionism. Modern Architecture, first skyscraper. Featured Artists: Claude Monet, Henry Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Otto Gutfreundi, Sonia Delauney, Gino Severini, Emil Nolde, Vassili Kandinsky, Igor Stravinsky, Frank Lloyd Wright. 27. Early 20th Century: History, Philosophy, Arts- Avant Garde


Raw notes

28. American Modernism- Painting; Modernist Music & Literature; Repression, Deptression, New Deal: Early 20th Century: Science: Pursuit of the Atom. Artists & Writers: Georgia O'keeffe, Charles Demuth, Edward Hopper, Thomas Hart Benton (murals), Jacob Lawrence, Sergei Eisenstein (film), Louise Dahl-Wolfe (photography). Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Ernest Hemmingway, William Faulkner. Repression: Facism & Communism: Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Francisco Franco. U.S. Panics, Recessions, Depressions: 1857 - 1940; Dust Bowl & Drought 1930-36+. Political Progressivism: Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt; Trust busting, Square Deal, Fed. Reserve Act, Progressive Income Tax, New Deal, Huge new gov't agencies, 1938 unemployment 19%, Social Security, Propaganda & Fireside Chats. Art as Propaganda: Russia, Germany, U.S. American Music: Prairie-Cowboy Songs, South- gospel, New Orleans- Jazz. Charles Ives, Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Scott Joplin, Louis Armstrong, Duke Elington, 28. American Modernism- Painting; Modernist Music & Literature; Repression, Deptression, New Deal
29. Mid-20th Century: History: WWII: Winston Churchill, the Pacific- Japan, Atom bomb, Holocaust, Aftermath consequences. Cold War, Spread of Communism, Cuban Missle Crisis 1062, Vietnam Wars, Space Race. Philosophy- Existentialism: subjective and personal dimension of human life: individuals struggling with apparent meaningless of life. Frederich Nietzsche ('father of'), Soren Kierkegaard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Simone de Beauvoir (study of women: they need to break habit of being seen only in relation to men: The Second Sex). Objectivism: Ayn Rand's comprehensive philosophy - to counter all major philosophers' false dichotomies. Individualist, Author of fiction (Atlas Shrugged, The Fountainhead), and non-fiction articles, speeches. 60's Movements: e.g. Pacifism, Environmentalism, Women's Liberation, Counterculture (hippies). Abstractionism in American Art: Limit of 'pure abstraction' reached peak in 1940's & 1950's: Jackson Pollock, Lee Krasner, Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko, Alexander Calder, Isamu Noguchi. Consumer Culture / Pop Culture: Artists turned their attention to consumerism (TVs, Cars, Shopping Centers): John Cage, composer; Robert Rauschenberg (messy art), Louise Nevelson (boxes), Andy Warhol, TV cartoons, Roy Lichtenstein, Donald Judd, Sol LeWitt, Bridget Riley, Norman Rockwell, Christo & Jeanne-Claude (grand scale environmental art), Frank Gehry (Architect). Music: Andrew Lloyd Weber (16 musical plays- half made into movies), Rock-and-Roll: Elvis Presley, many other 'greats,' American Bandstand TV. 29. Mid-20th Century
30. Chinese Civilization after the 13th Century: Dynasties: Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368): Kublai Khan; quiet resistance to foreign rule; Chinese seals. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644): orderly gov't & social stability; mandarin scholar-bureaucrats, enormous building projects- incl. Forbidden City; Grand Canal; 20th century history: early chaos, Chiang Kai-shek, Communist Party re-org under Mao Zedung: Mao's "Great Leap Forward" (catastropy), Mao the murderer: 'Cultural Revolution'; Chinese Capitalism.  Religions: Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism (Sidhartha Gautama), ancestor worship, Christianity. Culture & Arts: Ming furniture, Gardens & Rock Sculpture, Scholar's Rocks, Jade Carving, Literati Painting, Calligraphy, Embroidery Art, Poetry (extreme high regard for poetry), Tiananmen Square Massacre, Music - Pipa & Beijing Opera. 'freedom' for artists now? 30. Chinese Civilization after the 13th Century
31. Japanese Culture after the 15th Century: Land of the Rising Sun. History: Feudal waring states era 1477-1600: Shogun (military leader); Edo (Tokyo) Period 1600-1867: period of stability and unification; Isolationism edict; Samuri, top rung of society; 1850s trade and knowledge of the West begins; Meiji Era - close gap with the West; Industrialization, Universal Education. Sino-Japan & Russo-Japan wars; Expansion in East Asia; WWII Attack on Pearl Harbor, atomic bombs, surrender; Turned to economic, versus military means to achieve power & influence. Religion: Confucian, main philosophy; Mahayana branch of Buddhism entered 6th Century-Tokugawa Shogunate controlled Buddhist clergy; 1191 Zen Buddhism entered from China;  1542 Portuguese introduced Christianity (and guns); Shinto resurrected as a state religion during Edo period - practiced only in Japan; 90,000 Shinto Shrines; Shinto & Buddhism compatable- linking of gods; Revival of Shinto brought revival of bushido (“Way of the Warrior”) code of conduct for samurai (strongly Confucian in nature); 1868: feudal era ended, samurai class abolished. ARTS: Haiku Poet Basho, Zen master Hakuin,  & Zen Chinese ink-style painting traditions;  Landscape Painting. After 1600 Zen masters created paintings, poems, & calligraphy for followers, not for “decoration.” Koan (Zen riddle), Woodblock Prints, The Japanese Garden. Literature (in addition to poems): (from 1868) Modern fiction, "confessional novel."  Theater: Noh- Dances, dialogue, songs by main actors, music from a ji (chorus); Bunraki - Japanese Puppet Theater (not for kids); Kabuki Theater; Geisha - artist entertainers; Japanese Anime; Japanese Cultural Impact: Influenced many famous western artists. 31. Japanese Culture after the 15th Century